Friday, May 22, 2020
Wouter Slotboom, a Dutch hacker, carries around a small black device, slightly larger than a pack of cigarettes, with an antenna on it. In a cafÃ © in Amsterdam, Slotbloom orders a cup of coffee and sits down. He then pulls his laptop out and turns both the laptop and the black box on. Slotbloom launches some programs, and soon the screen starts to fill with green text. It becomes clear the SlotbloomÃ¢â¬â¢s device is connecting to the laptops, smartphones, and tablets of the local cafÃ © visitors. SlotboomÃ¢â¬â¢s screen starts showing phrases like Ã¢â¬Å"iPhone JorisÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"SimoneÃ¢â¬â¢s MacBook.Ã¢â¬ Then more text appears on screen. Slotboom can see the names of the Wi-Fi networks the devices were previously connected to. Slotboom learned that Joris had previously visited a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, probably vacationed in Spain (a lot of Spanish-language network names), and had been kart-racing (he had connected to a local kart-racing centerÃ¢â¬â¢s network). Slotboom got this information without even being connected to the Wi-Fi (Martijn, 2014). This is just one example of how easy it is for someone to uncover information on individuals. Even though some may think that the Internet is fundamentally secure, the reality is that Internet privacy is nonexistent. Companies are getting hacked and our personal data is being leaked. The United States government is collecting data on everyone that has been on the Internet, including U.S. citizens. Finally, status updates, tweets, and Instagram pictures are on social
Friday, May 8, 2020
The qualitative study used for the study conducted by Oster, Mayan, and Toth (2013) was ethnography. Ethnography is a method of describing a culture and the behaviours that are exhibited (Barroso Cameron, 2013, p. 179). The limitation to utilizing this research method in Oster, Mayan, and TothÃ¢â¬â¢s study, which primarily utilized focused ethnographies, is that the researchers may not involve participants from a similar community (2013). In order to address this aspect, the researchers should have conducted a Participatory Action Research (PAR), specifically Community-Based Participatory Research (Barroso Cameron, 2013, p. 187). Like ethnography, PAR allows the researchers to work towards improving the health of their participants.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Oster, Mayan, and TothÃ¢â¬â¢s study found that every women interviewed had similar themes pertaining to diabetes and pregnancy, such as difficulty controlling blood sugar and overall health (2013). They also discovered the importance of improving pregnancy care in a way that will increase autonomy and available support systems (ie patient-centred approach) (Oster, Mayan, Toth, 2013). These findings can help guide future nursing practice because from early on, nurses are taught the importance of patience-centred, strength-based care (Gottlieb, 2014). Improving strength-based care in indigenous communities will allow members with gestational diabetes, let alone any other health conditions to build upon person and community assets when they are working to improve health. This process will put patients at the centre of care and allow them to be more involved in their health care and thereby gain knowledge about all aspects of personal health (Gottlieb, 2014). Additionally, when implementing patient-centred care and working to promote health, it is crucial nurses and other healthcare providers involve Western medicine and culturally accepted methods of care. These methods may include cooking classes t hat prepare cultural dishes, developing a community vegetable garden, and implementing appropriate screening tools (Harris, Bhattacharyya, Dyck, Naqshbandi Hayward, Toth, 2013; Health Canada, 2013). The study conducted by Topp et al (2013) was designed to testShow MoreRelatedDiabetes Of Pregnancy Among First Nations Women1797 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFirst Nations womenÃ¢â¬ (Mayan, Oster, Toth, 2014), it was discovered that important aspects of the study process such as its purpose, research questions, and significance were made very clear to the reader. The purpose of the study was to bring a greater understanding to why diabetes rates among First Nations women were higher than that of non-indigenous women and with that, find more suitable options of prevention and treatment of diabetes among this group (Mayan, Oster, Toth, 2014, p. 1469). ThisRead MoreA Brief Note On Diabetes And Pregnancy Among First Nations Women By Oster, Mayan, And Toth1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesamong First Nations womenÃ¢â¬ by Oster, Mayan, and Toth (2014) for its relevance to nursing/healthcare, the purpose of the study, research questions, and significance were made very clear. The purpose of the s tudy was to acquire a deeper understanding of the perspectives held by First Nations women with the intention of discovering more culturally appropriate interventions to prevent and treat diabetes in pregnancy among this group (Oster, Mayan, Toth, 2014). The study is relevant to nursing in that
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Throughout generations, adolescent behavioral trend has been a matter of concern for families and schools. Their rebellious attitude has drawn attention of many psychologists. Usual defiance includes mood swings, disobedience, anger, criticism, disagreement, and harmful habits like smoking, drugs. We will write a custom essay sample on Behavioral trend- Adolescent rebellion or any similar topic only for you Order Now Socioeconomic status of the youth is a major factor. The urge to be accepted by their peers, leads to comparison for equality. Peer pressure is perhaps the most vital and unavoidable element in adolescence. Columbia University Teachers Suniya S. Luthar and Nadia S. Ansary wrote following: In a comparative study of middle school students at the two socioeconomic extremes, Becker and Luther (2004) found that Ã¢â¬Å"good studentsÃ¢â¬ enjoyed high peer status in both suburban and urban settings; by contrast, it was only the high income youth who admired peers seen as Ã¢â¬Å"bad studentsÃ¢â¬ . Society which does not view teenagers as adults restricts their freedom, believing it to be in their best interest. Parents often believe that adolescents cannot make good decisions. This restriction of freedom leads to rebellious behavior. However, Ã¢â¬Å"a Cornwell study from 2006 determined that teens are more likely to consider risk while making a decision, and for a longer period of time, than adultsÃ¢â¬ (Cornell University, 2006, December 12). Psychologist Laurence Steinberg says that a large factor in teenage rebellion is the natural early development of the socioemotional network. (Cited in Temple University, 2007) References Luthar,S. S. Ansary,N. S. (2005). Dimensions of adolescent rebellion. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 231-243. Steinberg,S (2007). Teenage rebellion and the socioemotional network. Science Daily. Retreived April 6, 2010 from www. sciencedaily. com How to cite Behavioral trend- Adolescent rebellion, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
However, after reading Malcolm GladwellÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion my beliefs are now different. One of the more important examples Malcolm Gladwell mentions that showed how different I thought was the success story of Bill Gates. I personally believed that Bill Gates was successful only because he was an intelligent man who was driven by hard work and his goal to create the personal computer. Previous to this novel my only education on Bill Gates was from reading short articles about him and from what I have heard from friends and teachers. What I did not know about Bill Gates was his given circumstance and the support from his family and others. Malcolm Gladwell mentions that there important opportunities that were Ã¢â¬Å"incredible lucky series of eventsÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008), that created his success. Some of the opportunities Bill Gates was given were his Ã¢â¬Å"free computer time at the University of WashingtonÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008) and also previous to that his mother along with others Ã¢â¬Å"had enough money to pay for his high school Lakesides computer feesÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). We will write a custom essay sample on Outlier or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Without the circumstance of Bill Gates receiving free computer time, chances are he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been nearly as intelligent and innovative with computers as he is today. To reiterate Malcolm GladwellÃ¢â¬â¢s argument about super achievers are successful because of their families, in Bill Gates circumstance it is true. He wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have had the opportunity to practice with computers at a young age if his mother couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to pay for the schools computer fees. Based on Bill Gates example Malcolm Gladwell writes about, it creates a credible argument to how he believes how to become successful. I did not even consider before reading this novel that family and the fortunate circumstances you are given are a substantial part to ones success. However, now it is crucial that it is not overlooked. 2. In my opinion, the Ã¢â¬Å"cultural languageÃ¢â¬ in the United States varies across the country depending on where you are from. I believe that in some regions of the United States the cultural language is similar to the language represented by the co-pilot Koltz in Ã¢â¬Å"The Ethnic Theory of Plane CrashesÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). However, I also believe in other vicinities in the United States the cultural language is outgoing and in the situation presented in the plane crash chapter, the cultural language would have been much more extrovert. The cultural language across the United States has emerged and evolved based on where you and your parents are from and how you were raised. Moments before the plane Ã¢â¬Å"Avianca 052Ã¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008) crashed after running out of fuel, Co-Pilot Mauricio Klotz attempted to warn Kennedy Airport that their airplane did not have the sufficient amount of fuel to land. However, because Klotz was using Ã¢â¬Å"his own cultural languageÃ¢â¬ , the controllers were not able to comprehend the trouble Avianca 052 was really in. I believe KlotzÃ¢â¬â¢s mitigated speech during this problem is similar to some cultural languages in the United States. For example, Malcolm Gladwell discusses Robert SternbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of Ã¢â¬Å"practical intelligenceÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). To Sternberg, practical intelligence is Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge that helps out read situations correctly and get what you wantÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). It is clear that KlotzÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural language lacked practical intelligence. However, I believe numerous cultures in the United States also lack the same intelligence. Malcolm Gladwell recalls a study where Ã¢â¬Å"Annette Lareau conducted a fascinating study of a group of third gradersÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). Results of the study showed that lower-class children are Ã¢â¬Å"quiet and submissiveÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). Therefore, children and adults who are from lower-class families very well could have responded the same way Klotz did during a time of emergency. The cultural language of the United States can also be outgoing and far from Ã¢â¬Å"quiet and submissiveÃ¢â¬ . Malcolm Gladwell discusses the South and the personalities people possess there. From results of an experiment, it had shown that Southerners were more willing to stand up for themselves. The experiment consisted of calling them an Ã¢â¬Å"assholeÃ¢â¬ to see if it Ã¢â¬Å"caused their levels of testosterone and cortisol-the hormones that drive arousal and aggression-to go upÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). The results were the Southerners Ã¢â¬Å"were angry, their cortisol and testosterone jumped. Their handshakes got firmÃ¢â¬ . It is easy to predict how a Southerner would have reacted to a plane momentÃ¢â¬â¢s way from crashing if they react strongly to simply being called a derogatory name. My guess is that if a Southerner was a co-pilot, the controllers at Kennedy Airport would have understood the trouble the airplane was in. I believe our vast cultural language derived from what Malcolm Gladwell would call Ã¢â¬Å"the culture of honorÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). The Ã¢â¬Å"culture of honorÃ¢â¬ describes people behave the way they do because of where Ã¢â¬Å"you grew up or where your parents grew upÃ¢â¬ ¦where your great-grandparents and your great-great-grandparents grew up and even where your great-great-great-grandparents grew upÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). This explains our difference in the United States culture because the majority of the people living in the United States families were once immigrants. People come from all over the world to live in the U. S. and that is why are culture is different from any others. I believe our vast cultural language works in favor with our social structure because it matches with the supply and demand of our economy. For example, there are plenty of jobs in the United States where people who respect their superiors and are afraid to speak up can work. Also, there are opportunities to open up your own business if you contain traits similar to Malcolm GladwellÃ¢â¬â¢s example of a Southerner and do not mesh well with being told what to do. 3. When Gladwell says that biologists talk about the Ã¢â¬ËecologyÃ¢â¬â¢ of an organism he is referring to why certain organisms are more successful than others. Malcolm Gladwell is inferring that the Ã¢â¬Å"tallest oak in the forest is the tallest not just because it grew from the hardiest acornÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). It is the tallest oak in the forest because of many more reasons. Reasons that include luck and some things that cannot be controlled. For example, when discussing about oak trees, Gladwell mentions that one oak tree is the tallest because Ã¢â¬Å"no other tree blocked its sunlightÃ¢â¬ ¦no rabbit chewed through its barkÃ¢â¬ ¦ and no lumberjack cut it down before it maturedÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). GladwellÃ¢â¬â¢s point of the ecology of this certain tree is that is it the most successful because of certain circumstances it was placed in. The Ã¢â¬Å"Matthew EffectÃ¢â¬ or also known as Ã¢â¬Å"accumulative advantageÃ¢â¬ is when Ã¢â¬Å"those who are successful are most likely to be given the kinds of special opportunities that lead to further successÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). Malcolm GladwellÃ¢â¬â¢s example of accumulative advantage is hockey players and how at a young age they achieve success. Gladwell discusses that Ã¢â¬Å"the professional hockey player starts out a little bit better than his peers. And that little difference leads to an opportunity that makes that difference a bit biggerÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). An important implication of the hockey example is that the similarities in the age of the hockey players who have had success. The majority of the hockey players in Canada are born in Ã¢â¬Å"January, February, and MarchÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell, 2008). Because of the fact that these professional hockey players were born in the beginning of the year they had an advantage over those who were born later in the year. The reason why they have an advantage is because when they were young they were bigger and more matured than those who were born later in the year. Since that these hockey players were bigger than the other kids they were given the opportunity to play hockey at more of an elite level. This is a prime example of Ã¢â¬Å"The Matthew EffectÃ¢â¬ and it explains that ones who are successful are given more opportunities to be more successful. However, accumulative advantage and ecology both are very similar. For example, along with the accumulative advantage in the hockey player instance there is also ecology to it. As mentioned earlier, the ecology of an organism is lucky or uncontrollable circumstances that occur. For the most part, the date of birth of a person is often uncontrollable and is not often planned. Accumulative advantage and ecology as seen in this example, are often correlated with one another. In both the Matthew Effect and the ecology and an organism, people are given a better opportunity. References Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers. New York: Little,Brown and Company.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Parenting theory Essays Parenting theory Essay Parenting theory Essay Parenting org will try to answer 2 question: which business should we own? What parenting approach will get the best performance from those busineses? Instead of looking at how businesses relate to one another, a parent organization should look at how well its skill fit its businesses needs and whether owning them creates or destroy value. Parenting theory suggest that most CEO should concern with two crucial questions: what business should this company, rather than rival, own and why? And What org structure. Management process and philosophy will foster superior performance from its businesses? The best parent companies create more value in their businesses than rivals would. Multi business bring together under a parent org businesses that could potentially be independent. Such parent company can justify themselves economically only of their influence creates value. For example: The parent org can improve business plan and budget , promote better linkages among them, provide especially competent central function or make wise choices in its own acquisitions , divestment and new ventures. How corporate parenting add value to its businesses units? That occur when the parents skills and resources fit well with the needs and opportunities of the businesses. If there is not a fit, the parent is likely destroy value. A parent that does not understand the critical success factors in a business is likely to destroy vale. To add value: ICM, Restructure, Knowledge, transfer skill and sharing activities. A parent without detailed knowledge of a business market my not be aware of the opportunity to combine sales. Synergy. Five type of synergies: Cost savings, Revenue enhancements, process improvements, financial engineering and tax benefit. COST SAVINGS This is the most common type of synergy and the easiest to estimate. Peter Shaw, head of mergers and acquisitions at the British chemical and pharmaceutical company ICI, refers to cost savings as hard synergies and points out that the level of certainty that they will be achieved is quite high. Usually, they come from eliminating jobs, facilities, and related expenses that are no longer needed when functions are consolidated, or they come from economies of scale in purchasing. Cost savings are likely to be especially large when one company acquires another from the same industry in the same country. For example, SBC Communications, the former South-western Bell, realized substantial cost savings when it acquired Pacific Telesis. Within the first two years of this merger, SBC saved more than $200 million in information-technology operating and maintenance costs. It also saved tens of millions of dollars by combining the merged companies purchasing power. Even though cost savings are t he easiest synergy to calculate, overly optimistic projections certainly do occur, so you need to look very carefully at the numbers you 1 re presented with. If youre evaluating projections, be aware of three common problems. First, analysts may overlook the fact that definitions of cost categories vary from company to company. (For example, are warranty costs included in the cost of production or the cost of sales?) So it may appear that there are more easily eliminated costs in a category than turn out to be the case. Second, costs are incurred in different places depending on the structure of each company. Acquirers may assume they can eliminate more corporate or divisional administrative costs than they actually can because essential work is getting done in unexpected places. Third, it is easier to eliminate positions than the people who fill them. Often a job is eliminated on paper, but the person in the job is very talented and must be shifted ewhere in the company. Therefore, if a consolidation Ins to suggest that 200 jobs are destined for the ax, that doesnt mean that 200 salaries are, too Acquirers often underestimate how long it will take to realize cost savings. Sometimes that happens because the plans specifying how integration will proceed are insufficiently detailed. In other cases, it happens because the people in both companies are resistant to change, and senior managers often delay making tough cost cutting decisions. And, of course, the longer it takes for cost savings to be realized, the less value they create. REVENUE ENHANCEMENTS Its sometimes possible for an acquirer and its target to achieve a higher level of sales growth together than either company could on its own. Revenue enhancements are notoriously hard to estimate, however, because they involve external variables beyond managements control. The customer base of the acquired company, for instance, may react negatively to different prices and product features. A combined customer base may balk at making too many purchases from a single supplier. And competitors may lower their prices in response to an acquisition. Revenue enhancements are so difficult to predict, in fact, that some wise companies dont even include them when calculating synergy value. Matthew Slatter, the CEO of Bank of Melbourne, says, We model this [revenue enhancements], but never factor it into the price. Similarly, Peter Shaw at ICI considers them soft synergies and discounts them heavily in calculations of synergy value. Despite their dangers, revenue enhancements can create real value. Sometimes the target brings a superior or complementary product to the more extensive distribution channel of the acquirer. That happened when Lloyds TSB acquired the Cheltenham and Gloucester Building Society (which had a better home-loan product) and Abbey Life (which had insurance products). In both cases, Lloyds TSB was able to sell those products to its dramatically larger retail customer base, thus generating more revenue than the three entities could have done individually. Similarly, having acquired Duracell for a 20% premium, Gillette was confirmed in its expectation that selling Duracell batteries through Gillettes existing channels for personal care products would increase sales, particularly internationally. Gillette sold Duracell products in 25 new markets in the first year after the acquisition and substantially increased sales in established international markets. In other instances, a target companys distribution channel can be used to escalate the sales of the acquiring companys product. That occurred at Gillette when it acquired Parker Pen. In calculating what it could pay, Gillette estimated that it would be able to get an additional $25 million in sales for its own Waterman pens by taking advantage of Parkers distribution channels. A final kind of revenue enhancement occurs when the bigger, post-acquisition company gains sufficient critical mass to attract revenue neither company would have been able to realize alone. Consider what happened when ABN and AMRO merged to form ABN AMRO, the large Dutch bank. Afterward, other large banks pulled the new company in on syndicated loans that neither ABN nor AMRO would have been asked to participate in individually. PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS Cost savings result from eliminating duplication or from purchasing in volume; revenue enhancements are generated from combining different strengths from the two organizations. Process improvements, by contrast, occur when managers transfer best practices and core competencies from one company to another. That results in both cost savings and revenue enhancements. The transfer of best practices can flow in either direction. The acquirer may buy a company because the target is especially good at something. Conversely, the acquirer may see that it can drastically improve the targets performance in a key area because of some competence the acquirer has already mastered. Take the case of National Australia Banks purchase of Florida mortgage lender HomeSide. HomeSide has an extremely efficient mortgage-servicing process that NAB plans to transfer to its banking operations in Australia, New Zealand, and. the United Kingdom. The same was true of ABN AMRO when it acquired the U.S. commercial bank Standard Federal. In that case, process improvements went hand in hand with cost savings: because its mortgage operation was so efficient, SF eventually took over the combined banks entire mortgage business. Product development processes can also be improved so that new products can be produced at lower cost and get to market faster. Such was the case when Johnson Controls acquired Prince Corporation, a maker of rear-view mirrors, door panels, visors, and other parts of automobile interiors. Prince was better than Johnson Controls at understanding customers needs-both existing and anticipated-and consequently it produced higher-margin products. Prince also had an excellent process for ramping up production of new products, which enabled it to move from design to mass production about twice as fast as Johnson Controls could, maintaining higher quality levels while speeding cycle times. Johnson learned from Prince and was soon able to apply those advantages to its own products. For an example of the process improvements an acquiring company can bring to the table, take a look at newspaper giant Gannett. Gannett has a database of financial and nonfinancial measures for each of its 85 newspapers; executives use this rich resource to determine best practices, both boosting revenue and lowering costs. Larry Miller, Gannetts CFO, explains, We have been able to dramatically improve the papers weve bought. The key for us is knowing in very minute detail how to run a business. This gives us very specific ideas for improvement. Through more efficient production and distribution processes, Gannett has been able to extend its deadlines for news and advertising copy while simultaneously delivering the newspaper more quickly. That helps advertisers and improves Gannetts revenue. Gannett is also able to determine where classified rates are too high, hurting volume, and where they are too low, leaving money on the table. Because it can expect to yield quick, substantial p rocess improvements, Gannett can pay very high premiums for its acquisitions. When you consider that many of the acquisitions are run independently-and so dont offer many consolidation opportunities-the high premiums are quite extraordinary. In fact, Miller has told us, People are often shocked at what we pay. In nearly all cases, though, performance improvements after the fact have justified the high prices. The synergies of cost savings, revenue enhancements, and process improvements may be easy to understand conceptually, but our research demonstrates how hard they are to forecast accurately. Why? Most calculations of synergy value occur under horrendous conditions: time pressure is intense, information is limited, and confidentiality must be maintained. Since conditions are so far from ideal, the managers and board members responsible for the final decision should always scrutinize the assumptions underlying the numbers. FINANCIAL ENGINEERING Acquirers often think-and hope-that if they borrow cash to finance a transaction, theyll reduce the weighted average cost of capital. That is not a good reason to do a deal. If either the acquirer or the target company could afford to take on more debt; each could have borrowed it on its own. However, some companies can find genuine synergies through financial engineering. For example, an acquisition can increase the size of a company to a level where there are clear economic benefits to pooling working- capital finance requirements and surplus cash, as well as netting currency positions. These benefits can be quite substantial. When the Credit Suisse Group merged with Winterthur, 10% of the forecasted synergies came from reducing funding costs through optimized capital management. Heres another genuine financial-engineering synergy: a transaction may allow a company to refinance the targets debt at the acquirers more favourable borrowing rate without affecting the acquirers credit rating. That is especially likely to happen in the financial services sector because those companies are big and their risk is diversified. TAX BENEFITS Tax considerations are often a barrier that must be overcome to justify a deal, a fact that makes tax-related synergies very difficult to assess. Its useful to distinguish between tax structuring, which makes the deal possible, and tax engineering (also called tax planning), which ensures that the overall tax rate of the combined company is equal to or lower than the blended tax rates of the two companies before the deal. Regulators often believe that companies using perfectly legitimate structuring and engineering techniques to avoid incurring additional costs are simply taking advantage of loopholes. Thus companies are not anxious to disclose any clever techniques they may have used. The goal of tax structuring is to avoid as many onetime tax costs as possible. Those costs may include capital and transfer duties, as well as change-of-ownership provisions that can trigger capital gains or prevent tax losses from being carried forward.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Pope Francis Quotes on Racism, Xenophobia, Immigration Pope Francis has received praise for his forward-thinking views since 2013 when he became the first pontiff from Latin America. While the Catholic Church leader has not backed same-sex marriage or reproductive rights, heÃ¢â¬â¢s suggested that gay people and women whoÃ¢â¬â¢ve had abortions deserve empathy and forgiveness, a departure from previous pontiffs. Given his views on these issues, progressives wondered what the pope might have to say about race relations when he made his first visit to the United States in September 2015. At that time, racial tensions continued to run high in the nation, with police killings and allegations of police brutality routinely making the news and trending on social media networks. Prior to his U.S. visit, Pope Francis had not specifically commented on the Black Lives Matter movement, but he had weighed in on racism, xenophobia, stereotypes, and diversity around the world. Familiarize yourself with the popeÃ¢â¬â¢s views on race relations with the following quotes. All Forms of Intolerance Should Be Fought Pope FrancisÃ came down hard on intolerance while speaking to a group from the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Rome in October 2013. He highlighted the centerÃ¢â¬â¢s goal Ã¢â¬Å"to combat every form of racism, intolerance, and anti-SemitismÃ¢â¬ and noted that heÃ¢â¬â¢d recently reaffirmed the Catholic ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s condemnation of anti-Semitism. Ã¢â¬Å"Today I wish to emphasize that the problem of intolerance must be confronted in all its forms: wherever any minority is persecuted and marginalized because of its religious convictions or ethnic identity, the well-being of society as a whole is endangered and each one of us must feel affected,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"With particular sadness I think of the sufferings, the marginalization and the very real persecutions which not a few Christians are undergoing in various countries. Let us combine our efforts in promoting a culture of encounter, respect, understanding, and mutual forgiveness.Ã¢â¬ Although the pope could have limited his discussion of religious intolerance, he included intolerance based on ethnic identity in his speech as well, an indication that heÃ¢â¬â¢s concerned about the treatment of all minority groups. The World Cup as an Instrument of Peace When the FIFA World Cup kicked off in June 2014, many sports fans focused exclusively on whether their favorite teams would advance in the soccer (football) tournament, but Pope Francis offered a different viewpoint on the games. Before the opening match between Brazil and Croatia, Francis said the World Cup could teach the public a great deal about solidarity, teamwork, and honoring opponents. Ã¢â¬Å"To win, we must overcome individualism, selfishness, all forms of racism, intolerance, and manipulation of people,Ã¢â¬ he said. One cannot be a self-centered player and experience success, he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Let nobody turn their back on society and feel excluded!Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"No to segregation! No to racism!Ã¢â¬ Francis is reportedly a lifelong fan of the Buenos Aires soccer team San Lorenzo and hoped the World Cup served as a Ã¢â¬Å"festival of solidarity between peoples.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sport is not only a form of entertainment but also - and above all I would say - a tool to communicate values that promote the good that is in humans and help build a more peaceful and fraternal society,Ã¢â¬ he said. End Racism Against U.S.-Bound Migrants A year before real estate mogul-turned-President Donald Trump branded some undocumented immigrants from Mexico as rapists and drug traffickers, Pope Francis called on the United States to adopt a humanitarian approach to the migrants crossing the border, especially children. Ã¢â¬Å"Many people forced to emigrate suffer, and often die tragically,Ã¢â¬ the pope stated on July 15, 2014, in a message addressing a global conference in Mexico. Ã¢â¬Å"Many of their rights are violated, they are obliged to separate from their families and, unfortunately, continue to be the subject of racist and xenophobic attitudes.Ã¢â¬ Francis could have framed the situation on the U.S.-Mexico border as a humanitarian crisis without invoking racism and xenophobia, but he made a point to recognize how attitudes about Ã¢â¬Å"the otherÃ¢â¬ influence immigration policy. The pope has a history of advocating for refugees, remarking on an Italian island in 2013 that the public was indifferent to the dire circumstances in which North African and Middle Eastern migrants find themselves. Stereotypes and the Criminal Justice System On Oct. 23, 2014, Pope Francis addressed a delegation from the International Association of Penal Law. Speaking to the group, Francis discussed the widespread idea that public punishment is the solution to difficult social problems. He expressed his disagreement with this view and questioned the motives of public punishment. Ã¢â¬Å"Scapegoats are not only sought to pay, with their freedom and with their life, for all social ills such as was typical in primitive societies, but over and beyond this, there is at times a tendency to deliberately fabricate enemies: stereotyped figures who represent all the characteristics that society perceives or interprets as threatening,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"The mechanisms that form these images are the same that allowed the spread of racist ideas in their time.Ã¢â¬ This is the closest Francis came to addressing the Black Lives Matter movement before his visit to the U.S. in September 2015. Like many activists in the movement, Francis suggests that racial scapegoating factors into why society favors taking freedom away from some groups and placing them behind bars for years rather than remedy the social ills that keep prisons overflowing. Embracing Differences While discussing tensions between Catholics and Muslims in January 2015, Pope Francis once again emphasized the need to accept differences. He told a delegation affiliated with the Pontifical Institute of Arab and Islamist Studies that Ã¢â¬Å"patience and humilityÃ¢â¬ are musts in the Islamic-Christian dialogue to avoid fueling Ã¢â¬Å"stereotypes and preconceptions.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The most effective antidote to every form of violence is education about discovering and accepting difference as richness and fertileness,Ã¢â¬ Francis said. As his other remarks on diversity indicate, accepting differences can apply to religious faith, ethnicity, race and much more. The lesson to be learned, according to the pope, is that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t divide themselves and lash out against others based on differences.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Saguaro National Park - Research Paper Example The Northern part of the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s claim to fame is that of the Grand Canyon, the most recognizable Wonder of the World; the White MountainsÃ¢â¬â¢ sprawling ranges are peppered with vast stands of Ponderosa Pines, historic Western towns, and ski resorts. Additionally, Monument Valley, which stirs up awe in anyone who crosses it, has appeared in several films; and boating enthusiasts from different parts of the State frequent ArizonaÃ¢â¬â¢s Lake Powell (Joyce, 2). Moreover, of great significance is Saguaro National Park, formerly Saguaro National Monument, which is the focus of this paper. History of Saguaro National Park Saguaro National Parkis made of 91,327 acres and is made up of two separate sections namely the Rincon Mountain District (Saguaro East) and the Tucson Mountain District (Saguaro West) (Shannontech.com, 1). The significance of this national park lies in the rich Sonoran DesertÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity life found within a framework of prehistoric and historic human occupation (Colostate.edu, 13). Historically, Saguaro has evidently had human habitation for as long as twelve thousand years ago. During that time, the region was much wetter as opposed to the way it presently is. It supported habitation by such animals as the bison, mammoth, among other mammals. The Hohokam people settled in Saguaro roughly 2300 years ago and they had learned to carry out agriculture by 700 AD. For many centuries, these people thrived in the Santa Cruz Valley (where Tucson is presently situated) but in the fifteenth century, they vanished (Shannontech.com, 3). Saguaro national park became a national monument in the year 1933 following a presidential proclamation by Herbert Hoover. It became the first monument reserved to protect a plant species. In 1959, there was need for extra effort to prevent people from exploring the opening part of the park's area for copper. Towards the end of the year 1961, President Kennedy signed a bill that expanded the monument by adding Tucson Mountain districtÃ¢â¬â¢s 15,360 acres to the monument. Later, twenty-one thousand more acres were added to this district. In October 1994, following a bill signed by President Bill Clinton, Saguaro National Park was established as the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ 52nd national park (Shannontech.com, 6 & Uhler, 1). Plants Although Saguaro National Park is situated within a desert, there is a profusion of life. The park has magnificent examples of Sonoran Desert ecosystem that include various desert plants, as well as the renowned saguaro cactus, an American Southwest symbol (Shannontech.com, 1). Braun explains that plants foun d in this park vary from desert vegetation such as cacti, creosote and ocotillo in the lower elevations to Douglas-fir oak, and ponderosa pine in Rincon MountainsÃ¢â¬â¢ upper elevations (10). Plants that grow in Saguaro National Park are adapted to drought in such a way that they go dormant to conserve their water in periods of long dry seasons. Many plants seem lifeless during these periods but they are capable of coming to life budding new green leaves soon after a rainfall. For instance, a plant called ocotillo transforms from what was seemingly a handful of lifeless sticks into a sunny shrub with its branches tall and green within only forty-eight hours following a rainfall (Nps.gov, 1). Uhler explains that the saguaro cactus has been portrayed as the king of the Sonoran Desert, as a plant with personality, as the supreme symbol of the American Southwest, and as a prickly horror. It is famous for the variety of odd, with the shapes that it assumes inspiring fanciful and wild i maginings and some assuming all too human shapes. At times, giant saguaro cacti attain a height of 50 feet. These plants are unique to the Sonoran Desert.